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Wednesday, 15 December 2010

Dental Implant systems and forms

Dental Implant systems and forms

After many decades with various, now some naive sounding implant designs from before the war, have today called rotationally symmetrical implants (mostly screw implants ) enforced.

This means that the implant body in cross-section is circular, so that the cavity which will accommodate the implant, with rotary instruments , such as a cannon drill , can be prepared in the jawbone.



This surgical procedure is relatively simple and quickly charged to the patient less than other implant techniques and rarely leads to complications in wound healing and. In addition, screw implants have the advantage that they are distinguished by their thread "fix" immediately in the bone (primary stability). The "shortened the healing time, because little bone" must grow. Increasingly, the end of the cylindrical base forms the tapered so total an elongated conical shape that is created.

Most have multi-piece Dental implants enforced because it combined the given conditions can best meet their due and to ensure that the implant during the healing will not be charged. Multi-piece implants are anchored in the bone from the body , the mouth lying in the neck and the head part , which takes up the superstructure. The three parts are screwed together
With one-piece dental implants projects directly to the head of the implant insertion from the mucosa, after. Thus, it is difficult to avoid exposure during the healing one.

Zirconium implants are still in one piece, because they can not be made so fine, in order to develop more parts.

In addition to these cylindrical implants with or without screw thread, there are flat, leaf-shaped implants (extension implants) that are sunk along the bone course of the jaw in an approximately 1 mm wide in there prepared slot from 4 to 14 mm in length and then set to grow. These implants may also have through holes through which the bone through also grow horizontally.


Two screws and two implants BASAL implants for a one-sided truncated teeth in the maxilla.


Flat grid-like sheet / extension implant with 2 pillars to protect the mandibular nerve, with a fixed bridge and superstructure

Another group comprises the disc implants. These belong to the Basal implants. Disc implants have the form of a skeleton cylinder and used the side of the jaw. The maintenance is carried out in the hard and well-perfused outer wall of the bone. Disc implants may also be loaded immediately. Because of their particular form they should guarantee the maintenance of low bone height and advanced bone loss, a stable healing.

There are approximately 80 major manufacturers and over 200-300 different implant designs. The screw implants differ primarily in their front taper and the type of thread .

Historically, it was out of the current screw-or root-like and cylindrical implants are various other forms and types. Most of these forms, however, have not been proven in practice.

This applies particularly to the subperiosteal implants that large area of the mucous membrane directly under the bones lie. They were all in high grade bone loss used before, when the jaw bone for cylindrical or extension implants was too shallow or too narrow. The mere superposition of the flat subperiosteal implant under the periosteum ( periosteal ) often led to extensive inflammation with, for T. significant extended Knocheneinschmelzungen because an effective protection against infection by a bacteria-tight seal is missing, as he is given endosseous implants with.

Although in the U.S. are very successful in subperiosteal implants (more than 95% after five years of residence in unilateral mandibular implants), Germany, is the scientific development of further progress has not. The reason is essentially that knowledge of bone biology in terms of reliable regeneration of bone tissue, the options open, by appropriate surgical procedures in cases of limited bone quantity, cylinder implants use. In Germany there is therefore no frame manufacturer for subperiosteal implants.

The previously used pure ceramic implants were characterized by an excellent ingrowth. However, it became very common for fractures, as the brittle ceramic (higher modulus ) and is subject to aging processes. Bone as a biological tissue allows more or less pronounced bends, the ceramics do not join. So it has largely left this material group.

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